MEG Solved Assignments

MEG 07 Indian English Literature Solved Assignments 2021-22

All of the answers to “MEG 07 Indian English Literature 2021-22” can be found below; just click on the questions, which will take you to a new page containing the answers.

[su_highlight background=”#b0efe9″]MEG 07 Indian English Literature Solved Assignments 2021-22[/su_highlight]

 (Based on Blocks 1-8)

Course Code: MEG-07/ 2021-22

Max. Marks: 100

Attempt all questions.

All questions carry equal marks.

1. Write short note on: 4 x 5 =20

a) Forms of Hind Swaraj

Answer: Hind Swaraj is written in the form of a dialogue between the “Reader and the Editor” ,who is the author himself, with the Reader serving as a model for the kind of enraged young man whom Gandhi encountered in London and wanted to change. Gandhi uses the dialogic method in order to create a book that “can be put in the hands of a child.”

This dialogue is mainly a manifesto, a record of Gandhiji’s discussions with London’s “misguided” nationalists. Plato’s manner, whose writings he had studied with great attention and admiration, must have impressed the young Gandhi. Gandhiji makes it plain right from the start that, although he holds the ideas stated in Hind Swaraj, he has only attempted to follow in the footsteps of Tolstoy, Ruskin, Thoreau, Emerson, and other authors, as well as the masters of Indian philosophy, in a humble manner.  Gandhiji states at the beginning. This brief book, Hind Swaraj, contains the major concepts that arose from Gandhiji’s South African experiences, and is undoubtedly one of his most important works. Gandhi, the Young Crusader, visited London in 1907 to rally support for Indians in South Africa. The Indian Students Association asked him to speak when he was in London. He accepted the invitation and arrived at the designated location, but his host was not there. Gandhiji volunteered to wash dishes and scrub veggies after meals, just like the rest of the young pupils. They were all pleased with this newcomer, whom they had never met before. The guy who had called Gandhiji then arrived, and everyone was stunned when he revealed that the stranger cleaning the dishes was none other than the evening’s speaker. Even after being introduced to the organisers, Gandhiji proceeded to wash the dishes. This is Gandhi in his purest form. That conference included a number of revolutionaries who were studying in England at the time. The conference was attended by Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, among others. The Chair was occupied by B.C. Pal. Because the gathering coincided with the festival of Vijyadashmi or Dussehra, Gandhiji gave a lecture about the Ramayana. In reality, it was Lord Rama’s tale that sparked a discussion about truth and lies, violence and non-violence. Following this, throughout his almost three-week stay in London, Gandhiji had numerous casual encounters with revolutionaries, during which he had lengthy and passionate debates with them about the use of violence to achieve self-rule or Swaraj. However, the primary reason he had travelled to London remained unfulfilled. For, despite his best efforts during his three-week stay in England, Gandhiji was unhappy to return empty-handed, having failed to get justice for Indians in South Africa from British politicians. As he sat in his cabin on board the’S. S. Kildonan Castle,’ his mind was flooded with significant issues presented by the violent partisans during the talks. Pranjivan Mehta, a close friend, scoffed at his ideas about Swaraj Civilization and the use of violence. Gandhiji said that he authored the whole “Hind Swaraj” to give his friend Pranjivan Mehta his point of view on these issues.


Forms of Hind Swaraj IGNOU MEG 07 Indian English Literature


Indeed, Gandhi’s style became known for its deliberate simplicity, not just in his writing but in all he accomplished in life. Gandhi was a master of the straight and simple style; he was a minimalist in many respects, avoiding excess, superfluous decoration, and unneeded complication. Gandhi simplified things by speaking in ordinary man’s and women’s vernacular about extremely complex subjects and concepts. He was an excellent communicator in that regard. Gandhi was a conservative as well as a tireless inventor. At the same time, the conversation form harkens back to both the Upanishadic and Socratic traditions. As a result, Gandhi used a tried-and-true method to communicate his ideas. Hind Swaraj is divided into twenty chapters. The book is tiny in size, yet it delivers a tremendous punch in terms of content.

It makes us think of Plato’s Dialogues. “Just as we find Jesus first declaring his masonic purpose in these Gospel chapters, so we find Gandhi first announcing his life-mission in Hind Swaraj,” says Anthony J.Parel, editor of the ‘Hind Swaraj’ and ‘Other Writings’. It is nothing more than pointing the path for India’s moral generation and political emancipation.” The novel is not a fabrication of the author’s mind. However, it is founded on genuine debate on a variety of national problems. While the views expressed in Hind Swaraj are Gandhiji’s personal opinions, his ideology is influenced by western thinkers such as Tolstoy, Ruskin, Thoreau, and Emerson, as well as by Indian philosophical thoughts such as those found in the Bhagwad Geeta, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Upanishadas, and other Indian thinkers such as Vivekananda.  Hind Swaraj is a bud that has blossomed into a full-fledged tree of Gandhian philosophy.

Hind Swaraj was thrust into the spotlight on the Indian political scene in 1921. It was about this time that Gandhiji began the first countrywide Satyagraha in India against British tyranny. On August 1, 1920, he officially launched the Non-Cooperation Movement, which he characterised as a “non-cooperation movement.” He promised that if people stayed together, adopted Swadeshi, and most importantly, adhered to truth and nonviolence, they might achieve “Swaraj in a year.” The focus, though, was unmistakably on nonviolence. The demand for ‘Swaraj in a year’ sparked national enthusiasm on the one hand, and foreign rulers’ efforts to

Hind Swaraj is written in the form of a dialogue between the “Reader and the Editor” ,who is the author himself, with the Reader serving as a model for the kind of enraged young man whom Gandhi encountered in London and wanted to change. Gandhi uses the dialogic method in order to create a book that “can be put in the hands of a child.”

This dialogue is mainly a manifesto, a record of Gandhiji’s discussions with London’s “misguided” nationalists. Plato’s manner, whose writings he had studied with great attention and admiration, must have impressed the young Gandhi. Gandhiji makes it plain right from the start that, although he holds the ideas stated in Hind Swaraj, he has only attempted to follow in the footsteps of Tolstoy, Ruskin, Thoreau, Emerson, and other authors, as well as the masters of Indian philosophy, in a humble manner.  Gandhiji states at the beginning. This brief book, Hind Swaraj, contains the major concepts that arose from Gandhiji’s South African experiences, and is undoubtedly one of his most important works. Gandhi, the Young Crusader, visited London in 1907 to rally support for Indians in South Africa. The Indian Students Association asked him to speak when he was in London. He accepted the invitation and arrived at the designated location, but his host was not there. Gandhiji volunteered to wash dishes and scrub veggies after meals, just like the rest of the young pupils. They were all pleased with this newcomer, whom they had never met before. The guy who had called Gandhiji then arrived, and everyone was stunned when he revealed that the stranger cleaning the dishes was none other than the evening’s speaker. Even after being introduced to the organisers, Gandhiji proceeded to wash the dishes. This is Gandhi in his purest form. That conference included a number of revolutionaries who were studying in England at the time. The conference was attended by Virendranath Chattopadhyaya, among others. The Chair was occupied by B.C. Pal. Because the gathering coincided with the festival of Vijyadashmi or Dussehra, Gandhiji gave a lecture about the Ramayana. In reality, it was Lord Rama’s tale that sparked a discussion about truth and lies, violence and non-violence. Following this, throughout his almost three-week stay in London, Gandhiji had numerous casual encounters with revolutionaries, during which he had lengthy and passionate debates with them about the use of violence to achieve self-rule or Swaraj. However, the primary reason he had travelled to London remained unfulfilled. For, despite his best efforts during his three-week stay in England, Gandhiji was unhappy to return empty-handed, having failed to get justice for Indians in South Africa from British politicians. As he sat in his cabin on board the’S. S. Kildonan Castle,’ his mind was flooded with significant issues presented by the violent partisans during the talks. Pranjivan Mehta, a close friend, scoffed at his ideas about Swaraj Civilization and the use of violence. Gandhiji said that he authored the whole “Hind Swaraj” to give his friend Pranjivan Mehta his point of view on these issues.

Indeed, Gandhi’s style became known for its deliberate simplicity, not just in his writing but in all he accomplished in life. Gandhi was a master of the straight and simple style; he was a minimalist in many respects, avoiding excess, superfluous decoration, and unneeded complication. Gandhi simplified things by speaking in ordinary man’s and women’s vernacular about extremely complex subjects and concepts. He was an excellent communicator in that regard. Gandhi was a conservative as well as a tireless inventor. At the same time, the conversation form harkens back to both the Upanishadic and Socratic traditions. As a result, Gandhi used a tried-and-true method to communicate his ideas. Hind Swaraj is divided into twenty chapters. The book is tiny in size, yet it delivers a tremendous punch in terms of content.

It makes us think of Plato’s Dialogues. “Just as we find Jesus first declaring his masonic purpose in these Gospel chapters, so we find Gandhi first announcing his life-mission in Hind Swaraj,” says Anthony J.Parel, editor of the ‘Hind Swaraj’ and ‘Other Writings’. It is nothing more than pointing the path for India’s moral generation and political emancipation.” The novel is not a fabrication of the author’s mind. However, it is founded on genuine debate on a variety of national problems. While the views expressed in Hind Swaraj are Gandhiji’s personal opinions, his ideology is influenced by western thinkers such as Tolstoy, Ruskin, Thoreau, and Emerson, as well as by Indian philosophical thoughts such as those found in the Bhagwad Geeta, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the Upanishadas, and other Indian thinkers such as Vivekananda.  Hind Swaraj is a bud that has blossomed into a full-fledged tree of Gandhian philosophy.

Hind Swaraj was thrust into the spotlight on the Indian political scene in 1921. It was about this time that Gandhiji began the first countrywide Satyagraha in India against British tyranny. On August 1, 1920, he officially launched the Non-Cooperation Movement, which he characterised as a “non-cooperation movement.” He promised that if people stayed together, adopted Swadeshi, and most importantly, adhered to truth and nonviolence, they might achieve “Swaraj in a year.” The focus, though, was unmistakably on nonviolence. The demand for ‘Swaraj in a year’ sparked national enthusiasm on the one hand, and foreign rulers’ efforts to delegitimize Gandhiji on the other.

b) Women in Kanthapura

Answer: Raja Rao’s renowned novel “Kanthapura” (1938) chronicles the development of a Gandhian nationalist movement in a little South Indian village named Kanthapura. The tale is told by Achakka, an elderly Brahmin lady who knows all there is to know about everyone in her community. She tells the tale in the form of a sthala-purana, which is a traditional history of a hamlet, its inhabitants, gods, and customs.

The unrecognised and indiscernible core of Indian society, without which the patriarchy would crumble, has always been the woman. Despite never being given a say in the most important areas of life, the woman continues to determine the country’s conventional and cultural limits. When a lady wears jeans or goes to work, a community is described as contemporary. However, she lacks the autonomy to direct or make choices about her own life. Her male guardian’s identity defines her—as someone’s daughter, sister, or wife.

Kanthapura (1938) by Raja Rao is a nuanced examination of the enormous shift that the Gandhian movement of the 1930s brought to the life of the Indian lady while also refusing to allow her to transcend the traditional, so-called feminine limits. The book follows the material and psychological upheaval that followed the emergence of the woman from the dual manifestations of the “devi” and the “dasi” that had captivated the patriarchy’s imagination for centuries. The new women who break norms and spearhead the fight of freedom — Rangamma and Ratna — arise from the polar images of the all-pervading and all-powerful goddess Kenchamma and the Pariah Rachanna’s wife who would spin only if her husband told her to.

As Ania Loomba points out, political mass movements in every nation have differing perspectives on female agency and women’s rights. Machismo was a serious issue for women in Latin America’s political struggles. Some opponents argue that Gandhi’s non-cooperation campaign was feminist in character since it recruited an unprecedented number of women and embraced traits like passivity and occupations like spinning, which are usually associated with women.


Women in Kanthapura MEG 07 Indian English Literature


To some degree, this is true. It is true that Gandhi’s campaign had a significant influence in pulling women out of purdah. Women made up a large portion of the satyagrahis, and many of them took on leadership roles in the movement. As a result, we see Moorthy, the Gandhi of Kanthapura, appointing Rangamma to the Congress Panchayat Committee.

However, Gandhi’s movement was primarily opposed to women’s militancy, and their public positions were just an extension of their home identities, in line with patriarchal family and society ideals. Despite Kanthapura’s allusions to Rani Laxmibai, the ideal lady is presented as Sita, the ever-obedient and forever suffering Sita. It was just a shift from the conventional child bride to the nationalist ideal of the wife as a helper and friend. The memoirs of Ramabai Ranade, who married the well-known scholar and jurist Mahadev Govind Ranade at the age of eleven, gives us a glimpse of this difficult development. She chooses to skip a temple event where she had to choose between sitting with orthodox or reformist ladies, torn between her husband’s insistence that she be educated and the insults of her mother-in-law and other female relatives. Her husband punished her by refusing to talk to her, even after she rubbed ghee into his feet as is customary, and without even informing her what she had done wrong. It was only when she approached him and apologised that the situation was settled.

We witness both the traditional lady, who is not permitted to forget her responsibility to her man regardless of her position in the “Sevika Sangha” (Rao 110), and the modern woman, who courageously confronts attacks and traditionalism in Kanthapura. They fight, march, block shops and study scriptures but sometimes the traditionalism they show is overlapping the modernity: they are not building distinct identities, rather they integrate nationalist ideas in their current identity.  Most women in Kanthapura are referred to as ‘Amma,’ which emphasises the maternal, feminine, and even “Goddesslike” qualities of women. Indians have always distinguished between the Goddess and the whore (Chatterjee 125): women are trained to imitate goddesses in everyday life, thereby dehumanising women and limiting their expression of emotion and sexuality. Mother India (Khan), for example, was a film that embraced this concept. In contrast to males, who, according to Mondal, had to “rise beyond” their libido, women became asexual (Mondal 927). According to Chatterjee, the idea of woman as goddess or mother helped to obliterate her sexuality beyond the house (Chatterjee 131). Women, according to Mahatma Gandhi, have always been asexual. Venkamma chastises Rangamma when she travels to the lawyer’s home in the city for a few days at Kanthapura, faithfully representing the existing dichotomy: Her widowhood turns into a whore or a pervert.  Venkamma exclaims that this widow started to live with her men now openly. . This event demonstrates how tenuous a woman’s connection to society is.

Rao talks on widows (a perpetually disadvantaged and oppressed minority) and other women adopting or assuming the character of the freedom struggler in such a pervasively prejudiced period. He bestows both agency and power on them. In contrast to Moorthy and Mahatma Gandhi’s nonviolent male political leadership, he constructs a similarly benign and vindictive female goddess (Kenchamma) to protect their community. This goddess, as well as the ladies of the Sthala Puranas, offer strong female role models for widows and other women to follow, particularly when they subsequently participate in their own fight for India. The ladies studied the Sthala Puranas (localised historical stories) (Rao) and the scriptures (first with a scholar, later alone). These tales, which connect to the broader Mahabaratha and Ramayana, enable children to identify with the few powerful women of popular mythology and history, while simultaneously reminding them that power belongs to males. They become reliant on others for salvation as a result of these stories. When women begin to study the scriptures for themselves, however, a shift occurs in which the women grow stronger and more politically aware. The story shifts to include some autonomy for Kanthapura’s women, who choose to participate in the nationalist fight via a logical, deliberate process.

c) The Harikatha Element

Answer: Harikatha is a type of storytelling in Hindu religion in which the storyteller discusses a religious topic, which typically includes the lives of a saint or a tale from an Indian epic. It is part of the devoted Hindu’s religious obligation to arrange or attend a Harikatha ceremony periodically.  It may be held anywhere, either at home or at a temple. It is the recounting of the tale of an incarnation of Vishnu, also known as Hari, or any other deity, to the accompaniment of singing and dancing, as the name implies. Harikathas involve whole villages or communities. It instils religious zeal in the participants and grants them merit. Harikatha is as famous in Kanthapura as it is in the rest of India. When the locals learn that a Harikatha has been organised, they all rush to the temple.

The renowned Harikatha-man is Jayaramachar. He does the Harikatha in a unique manner. In one way or another, he incorporates Gandhian teaching into the tales he tells. He adds that Siva is three-eyed and Swaraj is three-eyed when recounting the tale of Siva and Parvati, alluding to Gandhi’s message of self-purification, Hindu-Muslim harmony, and Khaddar. Harikathas like these have never been heard before in Kanthapura. Jayaramachar, who can also sing, keeps them enthralled and in tears for hours. They will never forget his Harikatha about Gandhi’s birth, which is an excellent illustration of how the religious plank can be effectively utilised for political awakening. The inhabitants of Kanthapua see no problem with this since both goals are good.


The Harikatha Element MEG 07 Indian English Literature


Jayaramachar recalls the ancient glory of India, which produced great kings like Asoka, Chandragupta, Vikramaditya, and Akbar, as well as sages like Krishna, Buddha Sankara, and Ramanuja, in his special Harikatha. But this same region of the Himalayas, Ganges and Cauvery is subjugated by a nation of the Red-men from beyond the oceans. The rishis implore Brahma to take action to rescue the country from foreign enslavement. With the blessings of all gods, a boy is born in a Gujarati family that the world has never seen before.

He is given the name Mohandas Gandhi and grows up to become Mahatma Gandhi, who fights the snake of foreign domination relentlessly in the hopes of one day destroying it and bringing Swaraj to India. After this Harikatha, the police take Jayaramachar away, and he never returns to Kanthapura. Gandhi’s tale is a metaphor for India’s fight for independence.

Apart from its suitability as a Harikatha, Jayaramachar’s Gandhi tale helps to establish the novel’s political subject. As a genuine Gandhi disciple, Jayaramachar devotes his skill of storytelling to both political teaching and free public pleasure. Even as he educates the illiterate villagers of Kanthapura, he gives his stories of the Gods a contemporary relevance that is amazing. The recounting of Gandhi’s birth as a symbolic saviour of the Indian people and his pursuit of the chosen mission of eradicating British rule in India by Jayaramachar is a politically effective way of introducing Gandhi to illiterate villagers in his role as India’s national leader.

Raja Rao suggests in the Harikatha that if the people of India, regardless of caste and creed are to embrace Gandhi as their chosen leader, he must have something significant in common with their country’s established traditions and values. The Gandhian movement expanded throughout India because the great man’s strong beliefs developed not just from ancient knowledge, but were also given to the Indian people in the sustainable form of their ages-old approaches to life.

d) The Title of Midnight’s Children

Answer: The title of Midnight’s Children comes from the hour of India’s independence, August 15, 1947. In Rushdie’s book, all the children born at the same time become the children of the period: “Fathered, you understand, by history.”  And the childrens  represent “the highest of talents of which men have ever dreamed”.

Saleem’s story speaks of the joyful discovery of the midnight children via his protagonist Saleem’s own “All India Radio,” his own amazing psychic talent that serves as a communications hub for all 1001 of the youngsters. However, their potential has yet to be realised. “Childhood is the name of the third principle.” But it dies, or more accurately, it is murdered.”

The annihilation of the Midnight’s Children, which Saleem thinks is the true reason for India’s state of emergency, lies at the core of his dark tale. Mrs. Gandhi, the widow, totally destroys their magical abilities by performing “test-and-hysterectomies” on them (438). This is Rushdie’s way of expressing that the Emergency had emasculated and castrated the nation.

Rushdie’s humour comes through in a 1985 interview in which he discusses how the concept of midnight children came to be. He claims he started with only one kid. As he considered switching them, they became two.

“Then I realised that in a nation like India, you can’t have only two children. It has to be more than two, and if it is, why these two? I used calculators to do a quantitative calculation on India’s birthrate and discovered that a thousand and one children is correct” (Interview 18).


The Title of Midnight’s Children MEG 07 Indian English Literature


Rushdie, while writing about the Indian subcontinent, is in some ways similar to the authors who came before him, such as Raja Rao and R. K. Narayan, but he is also extremely different.

During India’s independence struggle, Rao’s Kanthapura was the sthalapurana, or place legend, par excellence. His true idol is Mahatma Gandhi. In contrast to Rao’s book, Narayan’s “Waiting for the Mahatma” is a light satire on the ordinary Indian’s inadequate knowledge of the Gandhi-led liberation movement while being respectful to the Mahatma. Gandhi appears in Midnight’s Children as well, but the historical memory of independent India is so hazy that Saleem records the date of his murder erroneously. The lapse simply serves to emphasise the chasm that exists between modern-day Indian and Gandhian principles.

The title Midnight’s Children refers to both the promise that the 1001 children represented and the post-independence generation’s inability to bear the burden of building a perfect society. Most English-language publications in India congratulated the Midnight children, who were born on India’s fiftieth anniversary, in an act of real life mimicking fiction!

There are a total of 1001 youngsters that are awake at midnight. This statistic may be perplexing, and some may question why Rushdie selected 1001 children rather than 1000, which is a round number. In reality, Rushdie claims in the same interview that the number of 1001 is low, and that there are possibly twelve or thirteen hundred infants born per hour (Interview 18). So, why did Rushdie choose the number 1001? Because the number evokes both “Scheherzade’s” 1001 tales recounted every night in the “Arabic Nights” to save her life and Rushdie’s book about telling stories.

e) Roopa’s role in Tara

2. Discuss Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit. 20

Answer: The novel of Raja Rao’s “Kanthapura” explores how Gandhi’s philosophy impacted Raja Rao, leading to the development of the character Moorthy. It also focuses on Moorthy’s attempts to encourage people to join the freedom movement while under the influence of Gandhi. Raja Rao believes that Gandhi represents the path, the truth, and the life. Gandhi’s philosophy serves the same purpose in the book Kanthapura for Moorthy, who considers it to be the path, the truth, and the meaning of his existence.

Mahatma Gandhi was the first Indian national figurehead to recognise that revolutionising people without using the resources of their religion was impossible. He was India’s and the world’s leader, not just for his fight for Indian independence, but also for his impeccable character. Gandhian philosophy and ideology impacted education, politics, economics, religion, social life, language, and literature. Gandhi’s influence on modern writing is both personal and diverse. Raja Rao is a writer from the Gandhian period, and his novel “Kanthapura” portrays the influence of Gandhi, who started the Freedom Movement in India in the 1920s in order to free the country from the British colonial rule. M.K. Naik is correct in his assessment that the book is primarily political in nature and does not reflect the author’s typical philosophical preoccupations, save in a broad sense. The author delves into Gandhi’s ideals of loving one’s adversaries, nonviolence, and the eradication of untouchability with zeal. Gandhian ideology had an influence on Mulk Raj Anand, R.K. Narayan, and K.A. Abbas. Gandhi’s philosophy had a big impact on Raja Rao. Rao stayed to Gandhi’s ashram at Sevagram for a few days. Raja Rao was linked to the secret programmes of young socialist activists during the Quit India Movement.

Raja Rao’s faith in Gandhi’s philosophy led him to see Mahatma Gandhi as a genuine saint. Rao portrays Mahatma Gandhi as a symbol of heavenly power in this book. Gandhi is portrayed as a reincarnation of Krishna who would provide relief to the Indian people. Gandhi will slay the serpent of foreign domination in the same way that Krishna slew the serpent Kalia. Gandhi, as a leader, advises the people of India to spin yarn because if they do, the money that would otherwise go to Britain would be kept in India to feed the hungry and clothe the naked. The author raises Gandhi’s campaign to mythic proportions. Rao makes a great comparison between Ram and Ravana, with Ram standing in for Mahatma Gandhi and Ravana standing in for the British government. Mother India, or independence, is likened to Sita, Gandhi is compared to Ram, and Jawaharlal Nehru is compared to his brother Bharta in this book. Gandhi’s exile is alluded to by the author. To free India, Gandhi leaves his house, travels the length and width of the country, and lives a life of exile. Rao claims that Gandhi, like Ram, would go to Britain and Lanka to secure our independence, Sita. It’s a battle between the gods and the devil.


Discuss Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura as a novel written in the Gandhian spirit


Seetharamu’s ready acceptance of the torture by the British government increases Moorthy’s faith in Gandhi’s nonviolence worldview. The phrase non-violence refers to the removal of ill-will from one’s heart, since it is the source of hostility and violence. When Ranga Gowda wishes to teach Puttayya a lesson for stealing all the canal water for his crops, Moorthy teaches the Gandhian ideal of nonviolence and love for the enemy to him. When Ranga Gowda wants to settle a score with Bade Khan, the British-appointed policeman in Kanthapura who oversees the political activities of the freedom fighters, Moorthy warns him against resorting to violence.

Gandhi’s nonviolence credo serves as an incredible model for the whole globe. Jayaramachar goes on to add that because truth is God, the people should tell the truth. It has the same tone as the Bhagavad Gita, which emphasises honesty as an important aspect of human conduct.

Rao was inspired by Gandhi’s philosophy, which is one of the most difficult philosophies of the twentieth century, during his early years. Gandhi, according to Jawaharlal Nehru, is “like a strong stream of fresh air… like a beam of light that penetrated the darkness and removed the scales from our eyes; like a whirlwind that disturbed many things, most notably the workings of people’s brains.” Gandhi offered the people of India the tremendous weapon of nonviolence, which was later reinforced by the non-cooperation and civil disobedience campaigns of the 1930s. Gandhi’s movement aspired not just for political independence, but also for economic liberty and spiritual renewal. Gandhi wished for everyone, rich and poor, to live a dignified existence free of all forms of exploitation.

Rao’s belief in Gandhi’s philosophy led him to see Gandhi as a real God. Mahatma Gandhi is portrayed at Kanthapura as a symbol of heavenly force as well as tremendous reality. The novel’s subject, “Gandhi and Our Village,” has a mythological meaning in that the past and present are intertwined. The locals’ long-held belief that gods stroll through the streets of Kanthapura during the month of Kartik shows that myth and reality coexist. The gods walk through the potters’ and weavers’ streets, and lights are turned on to view them. This allusion confirms the peasants’ unwavering belief in gods, a belief shared by the author and his characters. Rao emphasises the importance of religion in the fight for freedom. As a result, religion and politics are intertwined throughout the book. A religious metaphor is used to illustrate the value of freedom. The political participation of Kanthapura residents is fueled by their religious beliefs. Rao deftly navigates traditional mythology while also incorporating modern realities. The frequent use of myth adds additional dimensions to the fight for liberty. Thus, Raja Rao’s first book, “Kanthapura,” depicts Gandhi’s nonviolent philosophy and the eradication of untouchability. The emphasis placed on caste, the mythological portrayal of Gandhi and mother India, and the spiritualization of the liberation struggle within the confines of Indian cultural tradition all point to Gandhian ideology having a huge influence in “Kanthapura.”

3. What are the major issues in the poetry of Sri Aurobindo? 20

4. Discuss the personalities of Bim and Tara as depicted in Clear Light of Day. 20

Answer: In Clear Light of Day the female characters despite all of the constraints, strive to find their individuality.   They seem to embrace the dominant class’s language and culture, for example. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how female protagonists, such as colonial people, struggle to establish their presence in various ways, such as hybridization. In order to survive, these women use the oppressor’s language and culture.

The plot revolves on an Indian family living in ancient Delhi. Memories and experiences of the youngest daughter. Raja and Baba, the family’s youngest mentally challenged member, are their two brothers. Bim had to care after Raja when he Tara and her husband returned to her home and family after their parents died while they were children. Tara and her older sister, Bim, reminisce on how their family got sick with TB and how they nursed him back to health as the narrative progresses. She also had to look after her aunt when she became sick while caring for Baba.

Bim, now a history professor, is a strong, unmarried lady who, after their parents’ deaths, must assume care for her disabled brother, Baba, as well as their family house and company. She comes from a conventional household where women, including her mother, sister, and aunt, are expected to follow patriarchal society’s rules. However, her perspective on life, family, education, and marriage, which contributes to the character’s hybridity, distinguishes her from a conventional Indian lady. Tara, on the other hand, lacks the confidence to confront a difficult task and all she wanted was to go back to Bakul’s clean, hygienic, disinfected environment, with its system of laws and regulations, neatness, and orderliness.

Tara is trained to be “strong” and “decisive” by her husband, Bakul, after they marry as a subservient woman. Bim aspires to be like her elder brother Raja, a patriarchal figure. She defies this patriarchal way of life by dressing up as masculine figures who are superior to women. As a result, in order to set herself apart from the stereotypically docile Indian lady, she must hybridise her personality. She, like Raja, enjoys reading poetry. “She knew Byron, Igbal, and even T.S. Eliot,” says the author (42). Men are encouraged to study poetry in a traditional Indian household because they are regarded intellectually superior. Bim aspired to be a “heroine” as a kid, while her brother, Raja, aspired to be a “hero.” Tara.

Due to the unique environment of their household, Bim’s exuberant and lively personality was repressed at home. Bim saw school and its instructors and courses as a welcome challenge to her inherent intellect and mental curiosity. For Tara, school, with its instructors and courses, was a frightening idea. She missed home while she was imprisoned inside the towering stone walls, nearly unable to stand the idea of being separated from Aunt Mira, Baba, and the familiarity of her old ayah and its comforting. The bat and ball came naturally to Bim, who had been taught in sports by Raja and Hamid, who had often used her as a fielder when they had set up a cricket game between them. Playing sports with males is yet another example of hybridization that provides Bim with an opportunity to express her own existence and identity.

However, Tara was completely inept at any of the games she attempted to play. In situations when instructors and students were selecting teams for a game, Tara was always the last to be chosen, standing neglected and destitute, until one of the leaders grudgingly agreed to include her in the team.   She is a lady who does not make an effort to show her femininity. Tara seems to embrace her disadvantaged status as a woman to some degree. Tara and Bim studied Hindi when they were younger, but Raja chose Urdu because it seemed like a natural choice for the son of a Delhi family. When Muslim and Moghul monarchs ruled, Urdu was the court language, and it has remained so as the language of the educated and cultured. Hindi was not believed to be a language with a long history at the time.

Raja, as a male character, selects Urdu as the court language, making him feel proud and superior to those who speak Hindi. Urdu is seen as a better and full language and is a sign of masculinity. “Look, its angles are all wrong,” he said scornfully, holding up one of their Hindi copybooks as if it were an old sock. And the fact that you have to go back and cross out every word as soon as you finish writing it is an obstacle. It’s difficult to think clearly when you have to constantly walking back and crossing the street. It interferes with the overall flow of the composition he said.

Bim and Tara’s fight against patriarchal culture is exemplified by their hybridity, as shown by their decision to “do anything they liked” since Raja had not returned home from school, and everyone else in the house was fast asleep as well. They pondered what they should do that was bold enough, crazy enough, and illegal enough to take advantage of such a wonderful chance. They then realised why they were so different from their brother, why they were so inferior and insignificant in comparison: it was because they did not dress in pants like their brother.  They take advantage of their opportunity to join patriarchal society by hybridising themselves and putting on Raja’s trousers. Bim rushed across the desk, took out the tiny top drawer where Raja kept cigarettes, carried away by the magnificence of their trousersed bodies. She discovered an opened package in her pocket, along with a few cheap, foul-smelling, carelessly packed cigarettes and matches, and realised why Raja walked with such a magnificent, carefree swagger. It was only natural for her to swagger, to feel wealthy, superior, and strong if she had pockets and smokes. (132) Wearing a pair of pants denotes masculinity and dominance. They joined the realm of masculinity when they put on those pants, which is another example of hybridization. “They sank their hands further into their pockets, feeling even more superior”.


Discuss the personalities of Bim and Tara as depicted in Clear Light of Day.


Bim is depicted in this book as a lady who is quite different from the other Indian females who just want to marry. She rejects Dr. Biswas, a well-respected member of society. She gets enraged when Dr. Biswas, who wanted to marry her, acts in a patriarchal manner by misinterpreting Bim’s refusal: “Now I see why you do not want to marry.” You’ve devoted your life to helping others–to your ailing brother, your elderly aunt, and your younger brother, who will rely on you for the rest of his life. You’ve put your life on the line for them. (97) Dr. Biswas doesn’t get it since his explanation for her rejection is that she is a lady who wants to serve her family and is willing to give her life for them. He can’t see Bim as a strong woman who wants to be self-sufficient. Bim’s jaw gaped wide in surprise at this heinous statement, spoken gravely and leadenly as though etched in steel for eternity…. Her tangled emotions contorted her face and shook the idea of Biswas out of her. She snarled softly in her anger and frustration–at being so misunderstood, so completely misread–then gulped a bit with amusement at such hideous mistake.

“Bim chases her ambitions,” Sunania Singh says. Bim achieves her transcendence from life by being creative and busy, which Tara seeks in her search for love and safety. Bim refuses to be confined to her position as a simple female, denoting a minor prey or object for other people’s enjoyment” (41). Bim despises being emotionally reliant on others. Bim is unique in that she does not want to be owned. I’m constantly trying to educate them, train them to be different from you and me-and if they knew how severely handicapped I still am, how I myself haven’t been able to cope on my own-they’d laugh. Her revelation to Tara reveals that she is attempting to transcend her limits. Bim succeeds in establishing her goal, which is a victory in being independent, despite all the constraints and difficulties, and it is Tara and Bakul who recognise this that Bim had discovered everything she had been looking for in life. It seemed amazing that she hadn’t had to look far for it, that she had remained in the same home and taught at the old college, and that it had provided her with all she desired. According to Singh, Bim is able to get whatever she desires in life without the assistance of male powers because she has faith in herself. We see the developing new and autonomous woman that Simon de Beauvoir predicted: once she stops being a parasite, the system built on her dependency collapses; there is no longer any need for a male mediator between her and the world.

Another instance of hybridity occurs in the household when Tara and Bim, who are both members of a disadvantaged group, read literature with ease. They are acting in a manner that is in opposition to the norms of Indian society at the time. What is also important is the kind of literature they were reading, which serves as a reminder of the novel’s depiction of women as being inferior. According to traditional cultural influences, young women are expected to read romantic novels such as “Gone with the Wind” and “Lorna Doone,” while young men are expected to read daring novels such as “Robin Hood” and “Beau Geste,” according to traditional cultural influences. Aunt Mira, another lady who has been subjected to an excessive amount of suffering, exemplifies hybridity as well. She, on the other hand, strives to live and attempts to conquer the difficulties as if she were a man. Despite the fact that she has been subjected to various degrees of abuse, she still has the bravery and strength to care for this family when the parents, Bim and Tara’s parents, fail to fulfil their responsibilities. She is the only one on whom the children can depend in the household. She has a tough life to contend with. After her young student husband, who had gone to study in England soon after their wedding, had a cold while walking home in the rain one winter night and died, she was twelve years old and a virgin when she was widowed. She was left stranded with his family, who held a grudge against her and held her responsible for his death. She should be held accountable for her actions. She is the sufferer of a harsh society that mistook her for a parasite and treated her as such.

5. Discuss Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues. 20

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