NEW LITERATURES IN ENGLISH
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MEG 08 New Literature In English Solved Assignments 2021-22

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[su_highlight background=”#b0efe9″]MEG 08 New Literature In English Solved Assignments 2021-22[/su_highlight]

 

 Programme: MEG Assignment

Code: MEG-08/TMA/2021-22

Max Marks : 100

Attempt all the ten questions and answer each question in approximately 500 words.

1. The colonial educational system was inadequate for the creation of a national consciousness, with regard to the Caribbean identity. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. 10

Answer: We all realize that literary works are influenced by historical events and are also the consequence of certain social and material circumstances. With this in mind, a quick study would focus on a 50-year period between 1930 and 1980, when Caribbean authors and critics embarked on a mission of cultural decolonisation and opposition to colonial empire in order to develop national consciousness.

Christopher Columbus’ ‘discovery’ of the Caribbean islands in 1492 ushered in a terrible period of colonial dominance that lasted until the 1960s, when most Caribbean countries achieved freedom. The first European colony in eastern Hispaniola was established in 1502, and by the mid-16th century, the Spaniards had spread out to neighbouring islands. Following the Spanish, the Dutch, Portuguese, English, and French colonisers arrived, and by the eighteenth century, the whole Caribbean area was under colonial authority, which was primarily English.

The colonial company’s territorial and economic objectives resulted in the annihilation and often ruthless annihilation of the original Amerindian people. Expansionist colonial policies, social upheaval, and new epidemic illnesses like as measles and small pox all harmed the native population.

The Caribbean’s social upheaval was a clear outcome of a long history of colonial control and neglect, which had resulted in terrible social conditions and low salaries. Popular support grew for demands for self-government and political participation. General strikes and riots were a powerful tool of protest against the colonial authority throughout the Caribbean.

The stormy decades of the 1930s and 1940s saw the rise of a re-visionist agenda for Caribbean literature. The Anglophone Caribbean had already begun to develop a new sense of nationalism, at least in its collective rejection to colonial control. Cultural identities were exceedingly mobile and hybrid during this time of upheaval brought on by popular social discontent. Caribbean authors and intellectuals were attempting to build their identity and culture at the same time that political nationalism was gaining traction.

The works and discussions of this time were clearly influenced by and essential in the enormous cultural shifts that occurred in the Caribbean in the following decades. They aimed to transform their colonial selves into new national identities and Caribbean homelands. Nonetheless, colonial ideology’s tremendous grip spawned orthodox beliefs and aesthetic models. The cultural decolonization process was far from finished. The creation of Caribbean aesthetic has been a process plagued with identity, history, cultural decolonization, and endeavors at indigenization, as seen by the concise and selective mapping.

The publishing of regional works like as Norman Cameron’s Guianese Poetry 183 1-1931 and Albert Gomes’A collection from the fiction and verse of the Island of Trinidad (1937), journals like Bim in Barbados and Kyk-over-al in Jamaica , as well as the BBC Caribbean voices radio programme all contributed to a sense of patriotism and facilitated localised cultural exchanges. Vic Reid’s New Day was a major text that aided in the cultural decolnization process. Reid employed creole (a native language generated by the mixture of a European language and local language) as the language of narrative to chronicle the evolution of Jamaican culture beginning with the Morant Bay Rebellion of 1944. The historical novel’s emphasis on opposition, protest, and rootedness would have profound ramifications for Caribbean writing in subsequent decades. This cultural decolonization initiative also aimed to expose and challenge colonial schooling. The colonial educational system was criticised by several writers as a tool of ideological dominance that stifled the growth of indigenous awareness. George Lamming argued in ‘The Occasion for Speaking’ on colonial education’s pervasive impact.

2. What are the geographical and socio-political contexts that have shaped the literature of Australia? 10

Answer: Australia, the world’s smallest continent and biggest island, ranked fifth in terms of land size, had indigenous peoples living there for thousands of years until the British claimed it as terra nullius – “empty land” – after Captain Jantes Cook’s landing in 1788. It built a prison colony in New South Wales and called it after it. Tasmania (1825), Western Australia (1829), South Australia (1836), Victona (1851), and Queensland (1851) were progressively joined to the British Empire (1859). Until January 26, 1901, they had distinct constitutions. When the states of Australia chose to unite and establish the Commonwealth of Australia.

For a long period of time, Australia’s history was told from the perspective of Cook’s invasion, and Aboriginal people were treated as wards of the state rather than complete citizens. Aboriginal people were finally granted citizenship rights in 1967, following a nationwide referendum in which 90% of the white people voted in their favors. Initially, Australia’s immigration policy was white-only, but between 1947 and 1964, a programme of integration of Chinese war refugees, for example, was implemented, and subsequently, from 1964 to 1973, of integration The Whitlam administration proclaimed Australia to be a multicultural society in 1973, and the country has worked hard to retain that identity in both text and spirit ever since.

These shifts in national policy have had a significant influence on how Australia’s history is recounted and the literary voices that have emerged in recent years. The commencement of the storey of Australia’s history does not have to obliterate the Aboriginal narratives that existed before to the advent of the colonists. What was portrayed as a peaceful settlement in many mainstream European history narratives turned out to be a traumatic invasion that resulted in the purposeful and unintended annihilation of vast numbers of Aborigines through fighting, sickness, and so-called welfare schemes. The literary canons of Australia show the influence of subsequent immigration policies on the socio-cultural climate as well as changes in views toward women in Australian culture. Australia’s shifting demographic make-up has ushered in a slew of counter-narratives that, in some ways, challenge classic national mythologies while embracing new ones of a multicultural social environment. These various voices in Australia, particularly those of Aborigines, women, and immigrants, are redefining the country’s national identity.

3. There is a definite relationship between history and literature. Keeping this in mind analyse A Grain of Wheat as a complex portrayal of history. 10

Answer: Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong’o wrote “A Grain of Wheat.” Ngugi’s illustrates a painful period in Kenya’s history, known as the Mau Mau, in which members of a very complex civilization made up of people from diverse African tribes, European settlers, and Indians participated and responded to violent events in a highly emotional and often conflicting fashion.

As P. Ochola – Ojero puts it, “A Grain of Wheat” delves into the psychology of people who have faced tremendous challenges and resulting disappointment, but who have discovered some meaning and purpose in life throughout the difficult battle for their country’s freedom during the period of emergency.

However, as both Ochola-Ojero and David Cook (1983:69) have observed, the work is not solely about treachery, in which “all are culpable.” While it is true that most of the major characters have acted in ways that are opposite to what is anticipated of them at the time—Mugo betrays Kihika, Gikanyo confesses the oath, and Mumbi sleeps with Karanja—it cannot be held against them as ‘betrayal,’ particularly of the reason in question, notably, the freedom struggle. Mugo, for example, redeemed himself well before his ultimate confession when Thompson picked him out for harsh beatings in Rira prison camp: He would even have the warders lash Mugo first, before the other captives. He would grab the lash from the guards and use it himself on occasion, in a fit of rage.

He had also spared a woman named Wambuku, as well as several others, from being thrashed in the trenches. The novel depicts the independence movement in a comprehensive manner, including the participation of all parts of society, as well as their aspirations and concerns on the eve of liberation. Warui, Warnbui, General R, and Lieutenant Koinandu’s hopes, Mugo and Karanja’s concerns, and Gikonyo and Mumbi’s conflicted sentiments Ngugi offers a unique vision of the independence movement by combining truth and fiction—Kenyatta and Thuku with Kihika and Karanja—that is truer than history and more inventive than conventional fiction.

The inhabitants of Thabai symbolise regular Kenyans who, despite their human frailties and follies, were compelled to make sacrifices under duress and torture while remaining committed to the cause. Kihika represents the revolutionary youth who perceived a fundamental oneness in the colonial world’s quest for liberation and risked all for it. Karanja, on the other side, represents the collaborationists, who are essentially cowards who prioritise their own interests over that of society. Gikonyo and Mumbi, who represent thousands of regular people, highlight the personal ties that were shattered during the Emergency as a result of prolonged physical separation. While focusing on the horrific times that Kenyans suffered throughout their quest for independence, Ngugi also gives a glimpse into the future of the country. Despite the fact that on Uhuru Day, people danced and sang in the streets, pouring praise on ‘omoan d Kaggia and Oginga’ and’recalled Waiyaki’s heroic actions,’ they were not unconscious of their goal of an independent Kenya as a Sharnba for all going sour. The manner their M.P. seizes Mr. Burton’s Green Hill Farm, depriving Gikonyo and other villageria the opportunity to form a cooperative farm, is indicative of the ongoing fight between both the people and their politicians in modern Kenya—a topic that Ngugi would return to with his next novel, “Petals of Blood.”

4. Analyse A Dance of the Forests vis-à-vis the Nigerian independence; the relation of tradition to history; and the relation of the artist to politics. 10

5. Analyse Ice-Candy Man as a novel of Partition. 10

6. What is the significance of the title A House for Mr. Biswas? Give a detailed answer. 10

7. Attempt a critical analysis of the poem ‘Names’ by Derek Walcott. 10

8. Critically analyse the poem ‘Angel/Engine’ by Edward Brathwaite. 10

9. The Solid Mandala is a play of dualities. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. 10

10. Attempt a character sketch of Hagar Shipley in the novel The Stone Angel. 10


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